2Aquafeed Division, Feed Technology Department, JAPFA Group-PT Suri Tani Pemuka, Indonesia
3Department of Animal and Poultry Science, Fish Nutrition Research Lab., Univ. of Guelph, Canada
ABSTRACT: Common carp is a popular species for aquaculture in South East Asian regions because of its rapid growth, omnivorous feeding behavior and high market potential. However, the increasing demand of energy sources such as fish oil and squid liver oil has increased the production cost, which drastically decreased the profit from aquaculture venture. This has forced nutritionists and feed manufacturers to find alternative sources of energy for use in fish diets. Rice bran, due to its known as energy source and relatively cheap feedstuff, is an ingredient for fish diets that is widely used in commercial aquaculture operation. Nevertheless, the fat content of rice bran is quite high which might influence productivity during feed processing. Furthermore, rice bran also consists of rice hull (RH) of which is indigestible by fish. As a result, the need to verify optimal inclusion rates for the rice hull with respect to the balanced amino acid in dietary formulation is absolutely important. Therefore, the main objective of the present study was to determine dietary rice hull levels within feed formulation for growth of common carp. A secondary objective was to investigate the effect of rice bran usage in feed processing specifically in grinding time as this section might decrease the productivity. Isonitrogeneous experimental diets (prot: 27.95%) supplemented with commercial rice bran, which consist of four levels of RH (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.24%) were produced in a large industrial scale equipped with automatic dosing. Each treatment made up of 3 batches (9 ton) pass through hammer mill with screen diameter 0.75 mm per each. Aspiration was configured to 30%. Electric current was maintained at 250-310 A. For the in-vivo study, those diets were fed to common carp (55.87±0.03 g) for 60-day. Triplicate groups of common carp were randomly divided into 12 polycarbonate rectangle tanks 960 l capacity, maintained in a recirculation system where stocking density was 42 fish in each tank. Fish were fed test diets four times daily (; ; and ) at satiation. Fish body weight (FBW) of each treatment was measured in every 15 days. During a feeding trial, water flow and temperature were 4.76 l/min and 28-300C, respectively.
The results showed that no differences were observed in feed processing particularly grinding time, protein level and particle size distribution of diets. It was indicated that the usage of RH up to 1.24% had no problem in feed processing. In-vivo study confirmed that apparent parameters such as weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) decreased along with increasing inclusion level of RH in diet. Based on regression analysis, it can be concluded that the optimum RH level for common carp was 1.0% as equal as 12.5% of the usage of rice bran in feed formulation.
Keywords: Common Carp; Rice Bran; Rice Hull (RH); Grinding Time
BIODIVERSITY OF BAGWORM (LEPIDOPTERA:PSYCHIDAE) ON ORNAMENTAL PLANTS INSOUTH SUMATERA, INDONESIA
PS Agroecotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture Sriwijaya University
Jln.Palembang-Prabumulih Km.32 Kampus Inderalaya, Ogan Ilir, South Sumatera
ABSTRACT: The purpose of research was to investigate biodiversity, population of bagworm and their parasites in South Sumatera, Indonesia. Survey was conducted in rainy and dry seasons, from October 2008 to August 2009. The method used was purposive sampling method, with ornamental plants grown inhome yard, public garden and garden flower’s seller as the targets. The observation covered: species of bagworm, number of bagworm exist on each ornamental plant, position of bagworm, form of bagworm’s case, level of parasitization of bagworm and information of bagworm’s control.Identification of bagworm species refered to Kalshoven (1981), Mitchell et al. (2001), and relatedarticles about bagworm. Nine species of ornamental plants, i.e. Rose (Rosa sp), Orchid (Dendrabium anosmum), Asoka (Ixora spp.), Bougenvillia(Bougenvillia spectabilis), Hibiscus (Hibiscus rosasinensis), Euphorbia (Euphorbia milli), Palmae (Hyophorbe lagenicaulis ), Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa), and Alamanda (Allamanda cathartica) were observed. All plants were grown in home yard, five species (rose, bougenvillia, hibiscus, asoka, palmae, and alamanda) were planted in public parks, and all ornamental plants -except roselle- were found in garden flower’s seller. The species of bagworm associated with those ornamental plants were identified as Pagodiella hekmeyeri Heyl, Clania variegata Sn, Chaliodes kondonis Sn, Oiketicus abotti Templ, Pteroma plagiophles Hps, Mahasena corbetti Tams, and Clania minuscula Joannis. Population of Pteroma plagiophleswas the highest both in rainy and dry seasons. Rose, bougenvillia and alamanda were attacked by three of bagworm species, hibiscus and euphorbia were attacked by four species of bagworm. Orchid, palmae,asoka and rosellewere attacked by five species of bagworm. Position of bagworm in ornamental plants varied in parts of the tree such as leaves, trunk(s), branch(s) and flower(s). Bagworms were easily identified by the form of their cases. Each species had its own type of case, such as Chalioides kondonis with its cone-shape case. Level of parasitisation was low (0.00 – 18.54 percent).The rank of bagworm’s number and species found was as follows: home yards, public parks and flower seller. Controlling of the bagworms was done by mechanical hand picking. No chemical control was applied on these insect.
ABSTRACT: Fermentation has been used as primary mechanism in preserving and increasing safety of milk products. Consequently, fermented milk products are generally considered as safe product. The contamination of pathogenic bacteria into the milk may occur in the farm or during handling and processing of the milk products. The contamination source might be originated from the environment, mammary gland, utensils, and workers. Thus, the quality of starter culture which is used in the production of fermented milk play an important role. Therefore the objective of this experiment is to study the antagonistic activity of yoghurt and kefir starter culture on the survival of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) KT07 and Escherichia coli (EC) KT07 as indicator of pathogenic bacteria during 24 hours of fermentation and 11 days of cold storage (5±2°C).The experiment was done by addition of pathogenic bacteria into the yoghurt (YT), probiotic yoghurt (YP), and kefir (Kf). The starter bacteria which were used in this experiment were Streptococcus thermophilus (ST) RM01 + Lactobacillus bulgaricus (LB) RM01 for YT; ST RM01 + LB RM01 + Bifidobacterium longum (BL) RM01 for YP; and bulk starter of kefir grain for Kf. The examined variables were pH, titratable acidity, population of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and pathogenic bacteria. The variables were measured every 4 hours for 24 hours fermentation and every 2 days during cold storage for 11 days. The results showed that the numbers of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the fermented milks with SA KT07 as testing bacteria were increased after 4 hours fermentation process until the end of cold storage. Whereas in the fermented milks with EC KT07 as testing bacteria, the population of LAB were increased during fermentation but reduced after 24 hours and decline to the end of cold storage.The viable count of SA KT07 increased 8.92% for YT; 6.16% for YP, and 26.42% for Kf during fermentation, and continue to increase until the end of cold storage except in YP.Viable count of EC KT07 also increased during fermentation and reduced sharply to 1.90 log cfu/ml for YT and 0.70 log cfu/ml for YP at the end of cold storage. Based on the results of this experiment, it can be concluded that probiotic yoghurt had better bacteriostatic activity toward testing bacteria among treatments. The results of this experiment also showed that fermented milk products may have potential risk to the consumer health if the manufacturing process is not free from bacterial contamination.
ABSTRACT: Local population of white root fungus R. lignosus consists of many genetic individual or genet as revealed by mycelial compatibility. To examine the effect of inter-genet competition on aggressiveness, two strains of white root fungus R. lignosus belong to different mycelial compatibility groups (MCGs) were co-inoculated on 2-month-old rubber seedlings in two pot tests. As comparison, the rubber seedlings were inoculated with either single or double inocula of a single strain. Aggressiveness of the fungus was assessed based on disease severity, necrosis on tap root, mortality, mycelial colonization on root, and growth suppression of rubber seedlings. The result showed that co-inoculations with different MCGs significantly increased disease severity and root colonization at 6 weeks after inoculation in the first group. While in the second group, co-inoculation significantly increased disease severity and taproot necrosis, as well as reduced plant growth at 12 weeks after inoculation. These findings suggested that competition between individuals induces aggressiveness of R. lignosus.
ABSTRACT: Fluid inclusion has provided much information in the study of ore deposit including in the immediate problems of mineral exploration and also understanding the physical and chemical environment of ore deposition. Fluid inclusion is applicable for geothermometry as a result of differential shrinkage of the host mineral and the inclusion fluid on cooling from the temperature of trapping to that of observation. Microthermometric study was carried out on the samples from the epithermal gold – basemetal mineralization of Arinem vein system located at Western JavaIndonesia from different levels, stages and different kind of minerals such as quartz, sphalerite and calcite. According to the criteria presented by Roedder in 1984 the heating and freezing measurements were conducted on primary fluid inclusions trapped in those minerals. The inclusions especially primary ones were large enough to study, aqueous, consisting of two phases (liquid and vapor) at room temperature. Three type of fluid inclusion are recognized such as (1) two-phase primary – pseudosecondary liquid-rich fluid inclusion, (2) two-phase primary – pseudosecondary vapor-rich fluid inclusion, (3) two-phase secondary fluid inclusion. The fluid inclusion trapped in quartz has irregular, rounded, spindle, needle-like, negative and equant shapes, with size around 4 - 40µm, occurred as cluster, along train and secondary trail with volume % ofvapor is 0 – 35. Fluid inclusion in sphalerite has 8 - 16µm size with rounded, irregular to spindle shapes, volume % of vapor around 5 – 30 as isolated, cluster, along trail and secondary trail. Other fluid inclusion in calcite has 6 – 27µm size with irregular, negative, needle-like and spindle shapes, volume % of vapor is 10 – 30, present as cluster, along trail, isolated and secondary trail. In this study only primary fluid inclusion was measured.
The results of primary fluid inclusion measurement in quartz from different levels indicate that homogenization temperatures at L440m has average of 215.3°C, 226.1°C at L300m, 217.7°Cat L265m and 257.8°C at L200m. Fluid inclusions from sphalerite and calcite from L256m indicated average temperatures 194.1°C and 187.3°C, respectively. The salinities of inclusion in quartz, sphalerite and calcite determined by freezing point measurement are less than 4.34 wt% NaCl equivalent. So far, Raman spectroscopic analyses of CO2, N2, H2S and CH4 performed on selected fluid inclusions detected no volatile component other than H2O. The range of fluid inclusion temperature within the three mineralization stages from four different core levels show the equivalent hydrostatic depth is between 110 to 595m.
Keywords: Fluid Inclusion; Microthermometry; Ore; Quartz; Salinity; Temperature
SCLEROCHRONOLOGY AND GEOCHEMICAL RECORD FROM CORAL SKELETON
Teddy Eka Putra1,2 and Tsuyoshi Watanabe1
1GraduateSchool of Science, HokkaidoUniversity, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0810, Japan
2Research Center for Geotechnology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Jl Sangkuriang, Bandung 40135, Indonesia.
ABSTRACT: This paper present high resolution stable isotopes (δ18O and δ13C), trace elements (Strontium Calcium ratio) and Lanthanum (La) records of Porites corals collected from Simeulue Island, Indonesia. This study is aimed to identify geochemical trend related to the great Sumatra earthquake in December 26, 2004 and the Northern Sumatra earthquake of March 28, 2005. The first earthquake caused uplifted at northern part of SimeulueIsland and then second earthquake caused uplifted at southern part of this island. We analyzed the coral specimen from representative areas using Finnigan MAT coupled with Kiel Device and laser ablation-inductively coupled with plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to achieve near weekly sample resolution. Our study shows different trend between first and second earthquake. Therefore, results of this study could provide a basis to establish the relationship between earthquake events and geochemical record in coral skeleton, in order to reconstruct past earthquake histories.
Keywords:Stable Isotopes; Trace Element; Uplifted Coral; Past Earthquakes; SimeulueIsland
New Technique for Recent Tsunami Source Study:
Case study of the 2007 Bengkulu Tsunami in Indonesia
Aditya Riadi Gusman
Institute of Seismology and Volcanology, Hokkaido University, Japan
ABSTRACT: Great earthquake (Mw 8.5) occurred on September 12, 2007 off the west coast of Bengkulu, Indonesia. The tsunami generated by the event was recorded by tide gauges around Indian Ocean and two buoys deployed on deep sea. The ground surface displacement produced by the earthquake on PagaiIslands and SumatraIsland were measured by Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) analysis. We propose a new approach in tsunami waveform inversion that determines simultaneously both slip amount and direction. The slip distribution of the earthquake is determined by a joint inversion incorporating a spatial smoothness constraint, using tsunami waveforms and InSAR data. The major slip region is located at southeast off SouthPagaiIslands on depth between 16 and 32 km. The total released seismic moment obtained from the slip amount is estimated to be 6.8 x 1021 Nm (Mw=8.5) by assuming the rigidity between 4 x 1010 - 7 x 1010 N/m2, which is consistent with the Global CMT solution on the seismic moment determination of 6.71 x 1021 Nm. This moment released in 2007 is far smaller than the moment deficit that has accumulated since the last great earthquakes in 1797 and 1833. The 2007 great earthquake could be followed by several great earthquakes that will rupture the plate interface until the potential slip that has been accumulated is released.
ABSTRACT:The crisis of electrical energy in Indonesia will occur if the growth of necessity of electrical energy at national level, which rises from 8.2% to 18% per year, is not fulfilled. Thus, it is important to build a converged system of energy that uses the renewable source of energy, such as solar (sun), wind, water, biomass, etc. This paper tried to use the flow-induced vibration as an alternative source of energy in Indonesia. This statement is based on the fact that Indonesia is an archipelago country which two-third of its territories is consisting of ocean and has the world’s longest coast line, about 80.791,42 km. It becomes a potential condition to develop the flow-induced vibration as an alternative source of electrical energy in Indonesia. This paper describes the problems found in designing the flow-induced vibration as an alternative energy: the affects in a predetermined way of the boundary layer; the separation of the boundary level; the level of turbulence; the wake; the drag and lift forces; and consequently the flow-induced vibration.
Keywords: Energy; Flow-induced Vibration; Turbulence; Wake; the Drag and Lift Forces
Experimental study on the effect of ethanol blend fuel on performance and emissions of diesel engine
Hari Setiapraja1, Toshihiro Nakamura2, and Ogawa Hideyuki1
1GraduateSchool of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Japan
ABSTRACT:An experimental investigation was conducted to achieve high efficiency and low emissions diesel engine with utilization of high ignitability ether and ethanol blend fuels. Di-ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (DGM) with very high ignitability and high oxygen content was blended with ethanol to maintain stable ignition with smokeless combustion.However, the ethanol content in blend fuel was limited below 50% to suppress rapid combustion and misfiring due to deterioration of ignitability. The results shows smokeless and clean combustion is realized with the DGM – ethanol blend fuel even with large quantity of EGR and low injection pressures.
Keywords: Diesel Engine; Smoke; Blend Fuel
EARTHQUAKE-RESISTANT CHARACTERISTICS OF INDONESIAN TRADITIONAL TIMBER HOUSES
Instructor, Laboratory of Structures, Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, GadjahMadaUniversity, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
JSPS Post-Doctoral Research Fellow, Laboratory of Bridge and Structural Design Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan
ABSTRACT: A study of wicking behavior between cylinders with different contact angle is fundamental and may provide a better understanding of capillary penetration of liquid into more complicated structures such as mixed-soil. A model formed by two closely spaced parallel cylinders whose contact angle may be identical or different was employed in this paper. The minimum free energy and interfacial analysis were calculated and compared to force balance analysis. Then the theory was verified by a series of experiments. The experiment results were in good agreement with model theory.
As the theory was verified, the discussion is extended to more complicated system. Capillary pressure vs. saturation curves were obtained for bundles of parallel pores with contact angle distribution. We used two models of pore, circular and curved with edges. The result for curved pore with edges model is qualitatively similar to the one observed for real porous media, while the result for the circular pore model seems to be idealistic.
Keywords: Capillary Pressure; Contact Angle Polydispersity; Porous Media
Medicine and Environmental ManagementSession 3
The Activation of Natural Killer T Cells Ameliorates Post-Infarct Heart Failure in Mice
Mochamad Ali Sobirin1,2, Shintaro Kinugawa1, Naoki Ishimori1, and Hiroyuki Tsutsui1
1Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, HokkaidoUniversityGraduateSchool of Medicne.
2Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture Technology, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia
ABSTRACT: A review. Diabetes mellitus is affecting nearly 10% of the population every year. In 1997, an estimated 124 million people worldwide have diabetes and 97% of them are having Non Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus or diabetes type 2 (DM2). Indonesia is the fourth country after India, China, and United States which have the largest number of diabetic patients.
Diet and exercise are the first steps in the treatment of DM2. But if these measures alone fail to sufficiently control blood glucose levels, starting oral drug therapy is recommended. In more recent years, several studies indicate expanding opportunity of study and market in functional food for chronic diseases. One of the study interests in this field is study on anti-diabetes from natural source. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the diseases that have been treated with plant extracts since ancient time. Due to overall improvement in the promotion of health benefits derived from functional food, consumer acceptance of natural sourced treatment and prevention is increasing day by day. Natural products are potential resources for future medicine if they meet scientific and regulatory tests.
Indonesia is a developing country which most of the people have limited access to the modern treatment and greatly rely on local or indigenous medicines, often called Jamu. In Indonesia, there are more than 20,000 species of medicinal plants, but only about 1,000 of them have been recorded and only about 300 species that have been widely utilized in traditional medications. Therefore, much of Indonesian medicinal-plants potency has not been discovered yet.
This review paper briefly summarizes application of Jamu in the Indonesian people life with emphasize on medicinal therapy for diabetes.
2Division of Environmental Science Development, Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo-shi, Kita-ku, Kita 10 Nishi 5, Sapporo 060-0808, Japan
ABSTRACT: Previously we presented the results of laboratory batch experiments to investigate the desorption characteristic of Pb2+ onto artificially contaminated kaolin soil. The study provided a guidance for the selection of chelating agents (e.g. DTPA, EDTA, NTA, PDA, ADA and SCMC, respectively)as well as electrolytes (sodium salts of NO3-, NO2-, SO42-, SO32-, CO32-, HCO3-, Cl-, ClO42-,H2PO4-,and nitrate salt of Na+,K+,Li+,NH4+, Ca2+, Mg2+) to enhance the efficiency in electrokinetic (EK) remediation of lead from kaolin soil. The results showed that the combination of electrolyte and ligandhave a capability to increase the desorption of lead from soil. The presence of the electrolyte on ligand extraction perhaps would help to increase the electrical conductivity of the pore solution and generate a more sustained electrical current during EK remediation process. Based on these results, in the present study we investigate the removal of lead from contaminated kaolin soil in designed acrylic EK chamber by using a laboratory scale of EK remediation process .The spiked lead kaolin soil (ca. 300 mg/Kg of lead concentration, which simulate two times of Japan standard of contaminated lead soil) was loaded in the chamber. Observation holes were provided in the cover to allow the determination of the pH, electrical conductivity and other properties. A constant DC voltage gradient of 1 V/cm was applied for all tests. The results showed that the removal of lead from soil by using 0.001 M KNO3 as the purging solution was very low even though the test duration was extended from 72 hours to 120 hours. Similar trends were shown by using 0.1 M KNO3. When 3 mM ADA ligand was used as the purging solution in the cathode and 0.001 M KNO3 in the anode either in 72 hours or 120 hours test duration, the removal of lead was quietly increased. Meanwhile, using 10 mM ligand with similar condition, much more lead was removed. This study shows that the migration behavior of lead in soil was controlled by ligand complex charge. The poor ligand utilization obtained in the tests was attributed to the low dissolution rate of the metal. Modifying the operating condition to increase the concentration and the residence time of the ligand and electrolyte in the soil is expected to improve utilization efficiency of the enhanced electrokinetic process.
Keywords:Electrokinetic; Ligand; Electrolyte; Kaolin; Lead
Removal of cadmium using adsorbent
made from sludge of water treatment plant
Eko Siswoyo1,2 and Shunitz Tanaka2
1Department of Environmental Engineering, Islamic University of Indonesia, Indonesia
2GraduateSchool of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University, Japan
ABSTRACT:The purpose of this study was to examine the capacity of adsorbent made from sludge, solid waste material from drinking water plant, to remove cadmium. The adsorbent was prepared using sludge from Nishi no and Mia machi (please write drinking water) treatment plants. The sludge was dried at 100℃ for 24 hours, burned at 550℃ for 2 hours, kept at 100℃ for 24 hours and then crushed into powder or granular or block forms). Its adsorption capacity was found to depend on the source of the sludge, the concentration of cadmium, the type of buffer solution and the pH of the solution. The highest efficiency of removing cadmium was 99% for adsorbent made from sludge of Mia machi and 98.5% for adsorbent made from sludge of Nishi no. It was found that precipitation was major factor when the pH of solution is 10.
Keywords: Sludge of Water Treatment Plant; Adsorbent; Cadmium; Adsorption Capacity
RECENT PEAT FIRE TREND IN DEVELOPED PEATSWAMPFOREST OF THE MRP AREA
Erianto Indra Putra1, 2 and Hiroshi Hayasaka1
1GraduateSchool of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Japan
2Faculty of Forestry, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia
2Scientific Authority of North Sulawesi Coelacanth, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Sam Ratulangi University, Indonesia
3Aquamarine Fukushima, Iwaki, Japan
ABSTRACT:Indonesia marine waters became the marine mega biodiversity since the marine researchers found so many kinds of biota around this country.Several important water currents namely Kuroshio and Great Ocean Conveyer Belt pass by around Indonesia.The SulawesiSea became famous since some fisheries scientists discovered the Living Fossil of Indonesian Coelacanth (Latimeria menadoensis) at Bersehati Fish Market of Manado City on 1997. Some surveys of Indonesian Coelacanth have been done by several surveyors namely; Germany team, JICA and collaborative surveyors team of Aquamarine Fukushima, Japan, University of Tokyo, Hokkaido University, NihonUniversity, Ancona University of Italy, the Indonesia Science Institute (LIPI) and SamRatulangiUniversity.The surveys by collaborative team led by Aquamarine Fukushima Japan have been conducted since 2005 to October 2009, and succeed to discover some specimens of Indonesian Coelacanth. During that period, five specimens have been caught around ManadoBay and Bangka Sea of North Sulawesi of Indonesia.
The ecological and geographic distribution of Indonesian Coelacanth populations with a view to drawing up conservation measures for this extremely rare fish.During our explorations, we discovered 20 living Indonesian around Buol Bay of Central Sulawesi Province, about 400 km from Manado Tua Island and the other 4 specimens from Manado Bay and 9 specimens around Talise Island of North Sulawesi Province.The water temperature of Indonesian Coelacanth is ranging from 12.50C-22.50C and the sea depth 150-250m.
One specimen of incidentally caught of Indonesian Coelacanth have been done of its anatomy analysis with a CT scanner. Phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial genes showed that the Indonesia Coelacanth incidentally caught on 2007 slightly differedfrom the African Coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae) and was quite similar to the specimen of Indonesian coelacanth caught on 1998.
For the future research collaboration of the Indonesian Coelacanth, green eye project team has made some plans to do survey activities at selected sites of eastern parts of Indonesian sea waters from western SulawesiIsland to the eastern parts of WestPapuaProvince.The sites of incidentally captured Indonesian Coelacanth are very close to the villages. So the well conservation concepts for these sites are needed.To protect the living coelacanth, the deep sea marine sanctuary is necessary. For conservation purposes, the decree from local government for the habitate of these species is necessary. Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, SamRatulangiUniversity as the Scientific Authority of North Sulawesi Coelacanth had declared as an agent for conserved the Indonesian Coelacanth.